Lean ManufacturingMaintenance management

Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)

Total Productive Maintenance, also known as TPM, was born in the US, and has its main concepts were developed on decade of the 50’s. Preventive Maintenance consists in partial revision activities in a planned way; on which changes, substitutions, lubrications, among other activities are executed before flaws are materialized.

This planned way requires periodic scheduling, having into account the technical recommendations of the maker, and the breakdown history of the equipment.

As the evolution of the periodic planning of the maintenance activities, the concept of equipment improvement rejoins, with the porpoise of avoiding flaws, taking advantage of the operator’s knowledge. As result we get a maintenance plan related with incremental improvements.

From this concept of periodic planning of maintenance related with incremental improvements, TPM is born.

¿What is TPM?

Total Productive Maintenance is an improvement methodology, ensures availability and reliability in the operations, equipment, and the system itself, through the application of concepts such as: prevention, zero defects, zero accidents, and participation from all collaborators.

The concept of participation from all collaborators refers to the activities of traditional preventive maintenance; this participation comes from de maintenance crew, but also from the production crew, or other personnel from the organization.

Ventajas de implementar TPM

TPM focuses its goals towards the efficiency of equipment and operations through flaws’ resolution, nonconformities, times of change, and its related, in the same way, with order and cleanness activities. Activities which involve production personnel, with the porpoise of raising the probabilities of keeping the workplace clean and organize, as previous requirement of the system’s efficiency.  Besides, TPM has the following advantages.

  • Quality Improvement: Equipment in good condition does not produce nonconforming units.
  • Continuous Production Flux: Balance and continuity of the system benefits the Organization in function of time availability and reduces planning uncertainty.
  • Productivity Improvement: Trough raising the available time.
  • Use of human capital.
  • Corrective reduction of maintenance expenses: Minor breakdowns, so urgent purchases are reduced.
  • Operative cost reduction.

It is worth considering that equipment is susceptible to natural wear, and to forced wear. TPM activities are focused in eliminating forced wear factors, raising equipment care and installations.

TPM pillars

It is founded in the following pillars:

  • 1. Focused Improvement.
  • 2. Autonomus-Maintenance.
  • 3. Planned Maintenance.
  • 4. Quality Maintenance.
  • 5. Education and Training.
  • 6. Safety and environment.

Nowadays is usual to consider Administrative Excellence and Early Management as pillar of TPM.

Focused Improvements (Kobetsu Kaizen)

This are activities develop with the porpoise of improve the global efficiency of equipment, operations and the system in general. Said improvements, increasing and sustainable are carried out through a specific methodology, oriented to the maintenance and elimination of equipment limitations.

Proposal of the improvement goals, and their correspondent performance indicators, are stablished by improvement management, and executed individually or collectively, according to the complexity and criticality of the proposal.

Incremental and sustainable nature of the focused improvements causes continuous improvements cycles to be adopted, such as PMVA (Planning – Making – Verify – Acting), as transversal models of the improvement methodology, that the Organizations adopts.

As specific methodology, two successful procedures are suggested:

  • 8 phased method:
    • Improvement Team formation.
    • Problem definition.
    • Implementing containing solutions.
    • Measure and analysis: get to the root of the problem.
    • Election and implementation of root solution (verification)
    • Prevention of problem’ reoccurrences and root causes.
    • Acknowledge of from the team, toward the focused improve.
  • 7 phased method.
    • Multiple selection of the subject.
    • Develop the project’ structure.
    • Identify current situation, and stablish improvement goals.
    • Diagnose of the problem (subject)
    • Making a plan of action.
    • Implement improvements.
    • Evaluate the results.


Autonomus-Maintenance (Jishu Hozen)

Autonomous maintenance is the one that is carried out with the help of the same process’ operators. Consists in making daily non-specialized activities, such as inspections, cleaning, minor adjustments, improvement studies, flaws’ analysis, among others. Is important that the operators are trained and versatile to carry out these functions, in such a way that the operator must have mastery of the equipment, and their facilities.

Autonomous-maintenance goals are clear and help to the preservation of equipment through prevention. Besides, it allows:

  • Acquire knowledge and learning through team study.
  • Develop skills for analysis and problem solving. Organizational culture oriented to continuous improvement and collaborative management.
  • Improve team functions.
  • Improve the safety and efficiency conditions (productivity and energy) of the equipment.

As a specific autonomous-maintenance methodology, the Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) recommends the following procedure::

Stage Nombre Description
1 Initial cleaning (deep cleaning). Elimination of dirt, leaks, dust, identification of “fuguai”; minor adjustments.
2 Corrective actions at the source. Prevent the equipment from getting dirty again, facilitate its access, inspection and initial cleaning; reduce the time spent on deep cleaning
3 Preparation of inspection standards. Interim standards are designed and applied to maintain cleaning, lubrication, and adjustment processes. Once validated, they will be definitively established.
4 General inspection. Training for the inspection using manuals, elimination of small breakdowns and greater knowledge of the equipment through verification.
5 Self-inspection. Formulation and implementation of self-control procedures.
6 Standardization. Standardization of the elements to be controlled. Development of data registration standards, controls on tools, molds, product measurements, quality standards, etc. Development of standard operating procedures. Application of standards
7 Full autonomous control. Application of policies established by the company management. Use of visual management boards (Andon), MTBF tables and Kaizen boards.


Planned Maintenance (Keikaku Hozen)

Planned Maintenance, also known as, Programmed Maintenance or Preventive Maintenance, is the TPM’s three pillar, and corresponds to the incremental and sustainable improvement of equipment and facilities and the system in general, with the porpoise of achieving “Zero Breakdowns”.

The planned maintenance approach, as a pillar of the TPM, is far from the traditional preventive maintenance approach, providing a strategic improvement methodology based on::

  • Activities to prevent and correct breakdowns in equipment and facilities through daily, periodic and predictive routines.
  • Kaizen Events, (from 4 to 8 days) oriented to improve the characteristics of the equipment, aimed to eliminate maintenance actions, update work orders, update the inventory, to stablish a reliability analysis (FMEA).
  • Kaizen Events for the improvement of management and team technique improvement.

The main focus of TPM consists in prioritize the historic information needed to stablish specific prevention actions require per equipment, in a way that adequate maintenance times can be stablished, precise activities of enrollment (maintenance/replacement inventory), specific prevention actions for equipment with high deterioration, precise preventive maintenance routes are defined taking into account the criticality and complexity of the equipment and facilities, and even operative procedures  by maintenance activity, in which the specific conditions of maintenance, quality, safety, registration, tools are established, among other factors of utmost importance to carry out inspection activities.

It´s worth consider that organizational culture, collaborative management and TPM application are key for the correct operation of Planned Maintenance, even multinational organizations with maintenance management systems in place, limitations of the traditional maintenance approach can be observed, such as:

  • Common maintenance routines for equipment with high level deterioration.
  • List of spare parts per equipment, and their respective work orders outdated.
  • Precise instructions of maintenance, with no level of detail.

So that a correct application of the strategies proposed by TPM, constitute a great contribution to the development of planned maintenance, insofar as it is possible to involve all the actors of the organization in the formulation of concrete actions for maintenance and improvement of equipment and facilities.


Quality Maintenance (Hinshitsu Hozen)

Quality Maintenance is one of TPM’s three pillars, and has as main goal to improve and sustain the equipment and facilities in optimal conditions, where is possible to achieving the “zero defects” goal, that is to say, “zero quality conformities”.

Quality Maintenance has a series of systematic principles:

  • Classification of defects and identification of the context, frequency, causes, effects, and relationships with the conditions of the equipment.
  • Preventive maintenance analysis to identify equipment factors that can generate quality defects.
  • Establish standard ranges for equipment factors that can generate quality defects, and determine their respective measurement processes.
  • Establish a periodic inspection program for critical factors.
  • Prepare maintenance and improvement matrices. In addition to periodically assessing standards.

In Quality Maintenance is key to have the correct tools and technology, from quality control techniques, to precise instruments of measurement and prediction.

The Japan Institute of Plant Maintenance proposes new stages foe the development of quality maintenance, they are the following:

  • Stage 1: Identification of the current situation of the team.
  • Stage 2: Investigation of how defects are generated.
  • Stage 3: Identification, analysis and reporting of causes and effects in materials, machines and labor (3M)
  • Stage 4: Study the corrective actions for the elimination of “fuguais”.
  • Stage 5: Study the equipment conditions for non-defective units.
  • Stage 6: Conduct focused improvement events applied for the 3M.
  • Stage 7: Define 3M standards.
  • Stage 8: Strengthen inspection methods.
  • Stage 9: Assess the standards used.

Education and Training

TPM methodology requires active participation of all personnel, a trained and versatile personnel. The Education and Training pillar is focused in guaranteeing the development of the personnel competences, having into account Organization’s goals.

The Education and Training pillar has as priorities the following goals:

  • Development of competent personnel in terms of equipment: Advanced analytical maintenance activities; establishment of training centers in maintenance activities, promotion of specialists.
  • Development of competent personnel in terms of management: Leaders of autonomous maintenance programs, enlistment, prediction, prevention, TPM.
  • Development and participation skils: Creation of a collaborative culture in relation to TPM; one-point lessons; Fuguais report; skills matrix.

To achieve the proposed objectives, it is necessary to consider the strategy of conserving, acquiring, creating, transferring and using knowledge.


Safety and Environment

Security and Environment are a transversal pillar in TPM, is necessary to preserve personnel integrity and to reduce environmental impact of each operation, equipment or installation of the Organization. The porpoise of this pillar consist in creating a system of comprehensive safety and environment management with the aim of achieving “Zero accidents” and “Zero Contamination”, taking the principles of the management system to all the levels of the organization. The personnel’s integrity and the environmental impact are goals which contribute that to the improvement of productivity, a safe workplace, a pleasant environment, are ideal scenarios for the search for efficient operations.

The Safety and Environment pillar has a series of main, fundamental principles:

  • A deteriorating and defective equipment is an express source of risks.
  • The development of autonomous maintenance and the 5’s are the basis for the identification of unsafe conditions.
  • The methodology used for focused improvement is the procedure to eliminate risks in the equipment, and to find containment measures.
  • The trained and versatile personnel take a critical attitude towards the security conditions of their environment.

Japan Institute of Planned Maintenance proposes new stages for the development of the Safety and Environment pillar:

  • Initial cleaning security in autonomous maintenance (AM).
  • Improvement of equipment factors to avoid conditions that produce unsafe jobs.
  • Standardization of safety routines.
  • Training of competent personnel for the general inspection of the equipment in security matters.
  • General inspection of the process and the environment.
  • Systematization of autonomous security maintenance.

¿When TPM should be implemented?

Total Productive Maintenance must be used when and Organization requires to: have productions plant, equipment and facilities of all kinds, reliable, continuous and safe.

In general, the benefits of TPM are so many that its tools are recommended to any kind of Organization, and its whole methodology is also recommended to have high commitment from management, willing to positively affect organizational culture.

Implementation methodology for a pilot TPM event:

Below is an example of an application of a Kaizen event applied to the TPM:

Before the Kaizen event (starting point):

  • Define the Kaizen event: Define the team in which the event will take place.
  • Form the Kaizen team: According to its complexity and criticality, the team is formed.
  • Train the team in the TPM methodology.
  • Define the implementation plan.
  • Prepare the documents that will be used as supports for the process (Fuguais, instructions, manuals, etc.).

During the Kaizen event (implementation):

  • Perform deep cleaning on equipment and area.
  • Implement autonomous maintenance (AM) in the team: The implementation of the 5’S is a requirement for the AM.
  • Establish a preventive (PM) and predictive maintenance program in the equipment.
  • Establish a reliability analysis.
  • Implement quality maintenance in the equipment.
  • Present the achievements and / or progress in the process.

After de Kaizen event (tracing)

  • Ensure the correct application of the improvements and established standards.
  • Carry out internal follow-up audits.
  • Implement the LUP’s in the area.

Bryan Salazar López

By profession, Industrial Engineer, Master in Logistics, specialized in productivity, with interest and experience in modeling processes under sustainability indicators. Founder of Ingenieriaindustrialonline.com, site where research contributions, articles and references are collected.

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